AMRAPHEL


AMRAPHEL
AMRAPHEL (Heb.אַמְרָפֶל), king of Shinar. Amraphel is one of the monarchs who according to Genesis 14:1–9 accompanied king chedorlaomer of Elam on his campaign against the rebellious cities of the Sodom region. The identification of Amraphel is uncertain. The old view that Amraphel is the Hebrew reflex of hammurapi king of Babylon is philologically impossible. (A fanciful talmudic derivation of the name as composed of amar, "decreed," and pol, "leap," identified Amraphel with Nimrod, who in Jewish legend ordered Abraham to leap into the fire. See Er. 53a.) At the same time, biblical Shinar designates or includes the country around Babylon in the context of Genesis 11:2 and Zechariah 5:11. The biblical identification of Shinar with Babylon is corroborated by the 15th century B.C.E. cuneiform place name Shanharu, which may itself go back to the name of a Kassite tribe during the period that the Kassites ruled Babylonia. Nothing further is recorded in the Bible about Amraphel, and the invasion of Canaan in which he participated has not so far been attested in extra-biblical sources. Some scholars have, nonetheless, argued that Genesis 14 has the features of a genuine chronographic account. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: N.M. Sarna, Understanding Genesis (1966), 110–9 (includes bibliography). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Cohen, in: K.L. Younger et al. (eds.), The Biblical Canon in Comparative Perspective (1991), 67–107; R. Zadok, in: ZA, 74 (1984), 240–44. (Nahum M. Sarna)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Amraphel — • King of Sennaar (Shinar), or Babylonia Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Amraphel     Amraphel     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Amraphel — Amraphel, König von Sinear, war unter denen, welche den König von Sodom bekriegten u. von Abraham bei Dan geschlagen wurden …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Amraphel — Amraphel, d.h. Hammurabi, s. Babylonien …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • AMRAPHEL — Latine loquens ruinam, occultum, vel iudicium, Rex Senaar. Gen. c. 14. v. 1. Torniel. A. M. 2118. n. 2 …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Amraphel — In the Tanakh or Old Testament, Amraphel was a king of Shinar (Babylonia, broadly speaking) in Genesis xiv.1 and 9, who invaded the west along with Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and others, and destroyed Sodom.Beginning with E. Schrader ( Cuneiform …   Wikipedia

  • Amraphel — The leader of an alliance of five kings who defeated a coalition of four rebels in the Dead Sea area (Gen. 14). The identification, once popular, that this Amraphel was the famous Hammurabi of Babylon (1728–1686 BCE) is not tenable. The patriarch …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Amraphel —    King of Shinar, southern Chaldea, one of the confederates of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, in a war against Sodom and cities of the plain (Gen. 14:1, 4). It is now found that Amraphel (or Ammirapaltu) is the Khammu rabi whose name appears on… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Abraham — (). For Muslims, he is a prophet of Islam and the ancestor of Muhammad through his other son Ishmael born to him by his wife s servant, Hagar. Abraham is also a progenitor of the Semitic tribes of the Negev who trace their descent from their… …   Wikipedia

  • Hammurabi — • The sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Hammurabi     Hammurabi     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Noach (parsha) — This article is about the Torah portion Noach. For the Biblical figure, see Noah. Noach or Noah (נֹחַ Hebrew for the name Noah, the third word, and first distinctive word, of the parshah) is the second weekly Torah portion (parshah) in the annual …   Wikipedia


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